The Types, Causes, and Treatments for Hernia
A hernia can be a very painful injury as well as difficult to repair. It is best to prevent this type of injury through diet, weight control, and exercise but if it does occur, there are both surgical and non-surgical treatment options. This article discusses the different types of hernia and how they occur and most importantly how they are treated.
When organs protrude through internal tissue walls in the body then this is known as a hernia. This is all caused when there is a higher pressure level internally that presses on weakened membrane walls. When this protrusion occurs, internal swelling of the organs occurs as too. When the person does heavy weight lifting or even coughs the swelling increases. Even normal activities like urinating or having a bowel movement will cause further complications. Lying down will cause the protrusion to retreat unless it is a case of extreme hernia.
Additional causes of hernia besides weakness in internal body walls include weakened conditions because of injuries, internal lesions, being overweight, multiple pregnancies, and not exercising. Pathogenic organisms forming around an area where surgery was performed is another cause. This is why it is so important the surgeon perform proper suturing of the area just operated on. Then there are more causes that are directly related to increased pressure internal to the body. These include major constipation, lifting weights, chronic and persistent cough, and a blockage in the urethra.
While a person can suffer a hernia injury from anywhere internally, there are locations where it occurs more often. The chest wall is the least likely area susceptible to hernia because it is covered by bone. The back is actually strong due to the spinal chord and strong ligaments and muscles. The most commonly occurring place for a hernia to occur is in the wall of the abdomen. This is because the abdomen wall is not as strong due to openings that occur naturally within it. Plus, there are thinner parts in the abdominal muscles making these areas susceptible to hernia.
Inguinal hernia is one type of abdominal hernia that occurs in an area known as the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is located above the inguinal ligament in the lower abdominal wall. Males are the most common group where this type of hernia occurs. It starts out with swelling that occurs in the abdominal wall if straining. Lying down will relieve the swelling. Where it gets more serious is when the large intestine protrudes and only retracts with difficulty.
Another type of hernia known as the incisional hernia commonly occurs around areas that were operated on (and thus required an incision). This area is weakened either due to the sutures or the pathogenic organisms that infect the area because of improper suturing.
A type of hernia that occurs rarely is the lumbar hernia. It occurs in what is known as the lumbar triangle on one or the other side of the lumbar spine.
The femoral hernia occurs more often in women. The femoral canal lies between the lower abdominal wall in what is known as the femoral triangle. It is just under the junction that forms between the lower abdominal wall and thigh. Swelling underneath the skin forms when the contents pass through the saphenous opening of the thigh.
An umbilical hernia usually occurs in children. The protrusion of the abdomen’s internals is seen as swelling during the periods when the child is having a bowel movement or crying. The risk of hernia is higher here because this is the part of the abdomen that is weaker.
Other types of hernia are the epigastric hernia occurring in an area known as the epigastrium and the obturator hernia. Both are rare types of hernia. The latter occurs when contents pass through an area in the pelvic bone known as the obturator foramen.
And there are other complications as the result of hernia. One such complication is known as intestinal obstruction. What happens in this type of hernia is the intestine will protrude into what is known as the hernial sac. The resulting narrow orifice caused by this type of hernia will block the bowel passageway.
Another complication is known as strangulation. When abdominal contents of a narrow intestine protrude, they may not retract. This inability for easy retraction results in restricted blood flow to the herniated tissues and can cause those tissues to die. When this strangulation causes death of intestinal tissues, peritonitis occurs as the infection spreads in the abdomen.
In treating hernia, one first will try using the hernia belt. There are different types of hernia belts that can be used for each of the different types of the injury. The idea behind the hernia belt is to reduce pain and keep protrusions from happening. Other treatments include 1) reducing fat to strengthen the abdominal wall, 2) eliminating constipation, 3) eliminating chronic cough, 4) increasing muscle tone through abdominal exercises, and 4) elimination of urinary tract blockages.
Other treatments that can be effective on hernia include a diet that is filled with green, leafy vegetables and plenty of fruits. This allows for easier bowel movements that cause less stress on the hernia. Alternative treatments such as homeopathy and herbal medicine can be used also.
If no relief of hernia can be realized after trying the above treatments then surgical treatment may be required. One surgery is known as the herniorrhaphy where reparations to the posterior wall take place. Another surgery is the hertniotomy. Both are used to make repairs to the posterior wall. And the last type of operation is what is known as a hernioplasty and is used when a hertniotomy cannot be performed.
Original Article Source: http://www.medicalneeds.com